Continuing on from Part Two of the Exporting for iPhone using Air 2.7 and FlashDevelop Tutorial You should have a FlashDevelop project built and ready to export your swf file for conversion into an iOS friendly .ipa file. In Part Three we will learn about the certificates required by Apple in order to create your .ipa file and get it on to your device. For the time being we will be compiling for testing directly on a device as opposed to uploading to the App Store, which requires slightly diferent certificates. A word of warning, although I’m generally a PC user, this stage will require a Mac in order to generate a certificate request and then convert our certificate into the right .p12 format. There is a PC alternative to this for which I’ve linked below.
I’ll start be releasing all of my Apple angst and putting it to the side. I found this part of the process to be confusing and frustrating, not in the least because in comparison to the Android work flow this whole process is unnecessary. The ironic part for me was that compared to how hard Apple have applied themselves to the “it just works” philosophy for consumers, I felt the exact opposite about the developer experience. A big part of the reason was seamingly arbitrary processes that weren’t well explained and used a lot of new jargon. The most telling observation is probably that from a standing start it took me about 2 days to complete on iOS what took about 20 minutes on Android – having had no previous experience with either. But let’s move on because it’s all worth it once you get your app playing on the device, just know that inside I’m gritting my teeth as we walk through most of these steps. Apoligies if some of my frustration seeps out.
Apple Developer Centre
The first thing you’ll need is an iOS Developer account (and a credit card because these cost $99 a year). Once you’ve paid your ransom you can log in to the iOS Dev Center (this seems to work better in non-ie browsers):
From a Flash developer’s point of view you’ll only need to come to the The iOS Dev Center in order to generate and register certificates. We’ll also need it to register the particular device we wish to test on but more about that later. I’d almost ignore everthing else as the bulk of the content is aimed towards Apple developers working in XCode. So, by way of explaination, we will require two things in order to build and test our app on an iOS device, these are:
- A developer certificate – this allows you to create a .p12 file to sign and compile your app to ipa format
- A provisioning profile – this allows you to test your app on your particular device
Maybe it’s just me, but even writing the above sounds a little confusing because they are new terms that I don’t have any past experience with. Ultimately these are just authorisation keys to register your app, one is for you as a developer, and the other is sort of like a sub-authorisation for your app/device combination. Here’s a handy glossary that Adobe put together to help do a bit of the explaining.
The first thing we need to do is to get Apple to generate us a Developer Certificate. Sounds simple enough, but unfortunately it’s a multistage process and in my workflow I switch over to my trusty Mac Mini to take the path of least resistance. For those of you without access to a Mac, there’s a windows alternative method that Adobe has graciously explained, click the link below for more info:
Generating a Certificate Signing Request for iOS using Windows
On the Mac we open up “Keychain Access”. Being unaccustomed to Mac I wasn’t sure what this was or where to find it, but it seems to be the central OSX authorisation manager covering various software and devices within the Mac ecosystem. You can find it by going to Applications>Utilities>Key Chain Access.
A quick reference on locating the Keychain Access, Step 1
The process is then as follows (from Adobe’s tech note):
- On the Keychain Access menu, select Preferences.
- In the Preferences dialog box, click Certificates. Then set Online Certificate Status Protocol and Certificate Revocation List to Off. Close the dialog box.
- On the Keychain Access menu, select Certificate Assistant > Request a Certificate from a Certificate Authority.
- Enter the e-mail address and name that matches your iPhone developer account ID. Do not enter a CA e-mail address. Select Request is Saved to Disk and then click the Continue button.
- Save the file (CertificateSigningRequest.certSigningRequest).
Once you’ve saved the file to your hard drive you may as well stay on the Mac as we’ll be using it again later to create a .p12 file. Back at the iOS dev centre you can now upload this request file and get a developer certificate in return. Why all of this can’t be done magically behind the scenes on a web interface is a mystery, but that seems to be a common theme in this process.
In the IOS Provisioning Portal, click on “Certificates” in the right hand column, and then the “Development” tab in the main content area that appears on the right. From here you can go down to the bottom and click on the button to upload your Certificate Signing Request (CSR) for Apple to approve. Once you click Submit you can go back to the Development tab, if you’re not taken there automatically, and you should see your certificate listed. It might say “Pending” next to it, but if you refresh once or twice it should switch to “Issued”. Download it to your machine and then go back to Keychain Access so that we can add it to your machine. Select File > Import and then navigate to the certificate (the .cer file) you obtained from Apple. We’ll come back to Keychain Access later in order to generate a .p12 file.
Registering Your Test Device
In order to eventually test your app on an actual device you’ll need to register it and then add a provisioning profile on the device itself to allow your app to be installed.
The first step in this process is to find out the Unique Device ID (UDID) of your iPhone/iPod/iPad. The quickest way I know of is to hook up your device to your computer and open up iTunes. Locate your device in the left hand column (under “devices”) and click on it to open up the summary page in the main area on the right. In the first section iTunes should be displaying information about your device including Name, Capacity, Software Version and Serial Number. For some reason Apple decided they couldn’t list the UDID of your device just blatantly out there for you to see, so instead you need to know the secret place to click in order for it to appear. And that place is on the serial number. One click on the serial number and it will show your UDID which you can copy and paste (trust me, even though there is no way to selct the text, once you click you can do a ctrl+C and the UDID will be copied to your clip board).
With your UDID in hand, return to the Provisioning Portal and on the left hand column select the “Devices” option. In the Manage tab on the right hand side click on the “Add Devices” button. Here you can name your device and enter in it’s UDID.
Creating an App Id
Next we will create an App ID which will register your app and allow it on to your iOS device. On the left hand column of the iOS Provisioning Portal select the “App IDs” option and then in the main content area on the right click on the “New App ID” button. Some of these options feel a bit arbitrary and it’s not immediately obvious when and how these will be used later down the track, despite the tips Apple have given.
The first thing you need to add is a title for your app, this is purely for identification within the Portal and can be something nice and pretty like “My Awesome App” – basically the title of your app will suffice.
Next it’s the bundle seed ID, and for our purposes we’re just going to take the simple route and choose “Generate New”. From what I can tell it’s possible to have more than one app bundled together into a sort of suite which can utilise the same Bundle seed, but let’s just consider this a one off for now.
Finally you have to add a unique Bundle Indentifier which is appended on to the end of the Bundle seed in order to create the complete App ID. Probably the best advice here is to follow the same approach most people use when creating package names in AS3 and use your domain url in reverse in order to be sure that you have something truly unique. (It seems that you have to provide something that is unique not only to your own projects, but to every other app out there in Apple land). So for me I’d enter in something like com.codeandvisual.myawesomeapp. It’s not important to understand too much else, just enter in those 3 things and click Submit. At this point you should be taken back to the Manage tab of the App IDs section and your new App ID should be listed at the bottom.
Creating a Provisioning Profile
Now we are able to create what is known as a Provisioning Profile. You’ll generate this using your certificate and your App ID and will be needed to allow you to get your App onto a registered iOS device. Click on the “Provisioning” option on the left hand menu of the iOS Provisioning Portal and then make sure you are on the “Development” tab of the page that loads. (You’ll switch to distribution when it’s time to actually submit your app to the AppStore). Here you can enter the required details:
- Enter in a name. (I just use the same name as my App as they are ostensibly tied together anyway).
- Select the Developer Certificate to use (you should only have one option to check there).
- Select an App ID (again you should have only one at this point to chooseyour new Profile form).
- Choose which device you’ll be uploading and testing on (again if this is your first walk through the process you’ll have only one).
Click Submit and you should see your new profile listed on the page that loads. Again this might have a status of Pending, but refresh the page and it should have updated to “Active”. We’ll install this onto our device next, so download the file and open up iTunes.
Make sure your device is plugged in and iTunes has finished synching or whatever it needs to do. Go to File>Add File To Library and select your provisioning file. Sync your device again one more time for luck and your device should be ready to receive your App when it’s compiled.
A little tip I read to double check that your provisioning file is actually installed is to try and add the file again in the same way – iTunes should tell you that a version already exists on the device if all was done correctly. You can be more categorical by going to your device and opening settings>general>profiles and seeing if your Provisioning Profile is listed.
Creating a .p12 File
You’re almost free of the Mac specific steps now besides one last thing, and that is to create the .p12 file which will allow you to compile your .swf to a .ipa file. For a quick footnote, here’s a definition I found about what a .p12 file actually is:
The P12 file type is primarily associated with ‘Personal Information Exchange File’. In cryptography, a public key certificate (or identity certificate) is a certificate which uses a digital signature to bind together a public key with an identity. The certificate can be used to verify that a public key belongs to an individual. This is a PKCS #12 file. In cryptography, PKCS refers to a group of Public Key Cryptography Standards devised and published by RSA Security.
All we really need to know is that it’s an authorisation certificate to please the Apple ecosphere Gods so they allow us to put our awesome app onto our device. Geez, thanks for that. In order to do so we’ll jump back to the Mac. Again there is a way to do this on windows machines which I will link to below, but for sake of ease I’m going to go the Mac path.
Click here to read how to create a .p12 file on a Windows machine
In Mac world we need to go back to the Keychain Access and from there Adobe’s notes say it best:
- Select the private key associated with your iPhone Development Certificate.
The private key is identified by the iPhone Developer: public certificate that is paired with it.
- Select File > Export Items.
- Save your key in the Personal Information Exchange (.p12) file format.
- You will be prompted to create a password that is used when you attempt to import this key on another computer.
This .p12 file is the key to allowing you to compile a .ipa file from your .swf and install it onto your machine. Copy this to a folder handy to your development machine and you’re ready to rock’n’roll.
Licence to Ill
From this point on you shouldn’t require a Mac at all so, if you’re like me, you can power down your Mac Mini until next time you’re required by the powers that be to do something on a Mac just because they said you have to. That next time may well be when it comes time to create a deploy version of your app which will require you to redo a portion of these steps in order to upload an Appstore approved build. We’ll get to that in a later tutorial, but until that point you can fairly much develop away as you please.
In the Part Four we’ll go through the process of using the .p12 certificate and provisioning profile to generate your .ipa file ready for uploading onto your iOS device for testing.
Part 1 – Installation
Part 2 – Creating an iPhone Project
Part 3 – Generating Developer Certificates, Provisioning Profiles and .p12 Files
Part 4 – Creating an Air Certificate and Compiling to .IPA
Part 5 – Loading your .IPA File onto a Test Device